Dietary vegetable oil suppressed non-specific immunity and liver antioxidant capacity but induced inflammatory response in Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus)
High percentage of dietary vegetable oil (VO) induced negative effects on immunity in numerous fish species. The present study was conducted to investigate whether VO could exert anti-immunological effects by regulating non-specific immunity, liver antioxidant capacity and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) signaling in Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipid diets were formulated by replacing 0% (FO, the control), 50% (FV) and 100% (VO) of fish oil with vegetable oil. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of fish for 10 weeks. Results showed that the alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity and the disease resistance were significantly lower in fish fed VO diets compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathion peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities, as well as total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) significantly decreased in fish fed VO diets (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, significantly low level of liver SOD1 and CAT mRNA, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) of both mRNA and protein were observed in fish fed VO diets when compared with fish fed FO diets (P < 0.05). However, the transcription level of TNFα and IL1β was significantly higher in the liver of fish fed VO diets, which might be attributed to the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway since the protein expression of p65, one of the key members of NF-κB family, was significantly increased (P < 0.05). These results suggested that dietary VO could lower the ACP activity, disease resistance and liver antioxidant capacity, but it could also exacerbate inflammatory response by activating NF-κB signaling pathway in Japanese sea bass.