Sex-gender-related therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes

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Abstract

Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with micro- and macrovascular complications and is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes are among the most important causes of death in diabetic patients. Interestingly, several sex-gender differences have been reported to significantly impact in the pathophysiology of diabetes. In particular, sex-gender differences have been reported to affect diabetes epidemiology, risk factors, as well as cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. This suggests that different therapeutic approaches are needed for managing diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications in men and women. In this review, we will discuss about the sex-gender differences that are known to impact on diabetes, mainly focusing on the cardiovascular complications associated with the disease. We will then discuss the therapeutic approaches for managing diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications and how differences in sex-gender can influence the existing therapeutic approaches.

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