Autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations occur frequently in patients with primary immunodeficiencies

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Abstract

Background

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are inherited diseases associated with a considerable increase in susceptibility to infections. It is known that PIDs can also predispose to cancer and immune diseases, including allergy, autoimmunity, and inflammation.

Objective

We aimed at determining the incidence of autoimmunity and inflammation in patients with PIDs.

Methods

We have retrospectively screened 2183 consecutive cases of PID in the Centre de Référence Déficits Immunitaires Héréditaires registry (CEREDIH; the French national PID registry) for the occurrence of autoimmunity and inflammation.

Results

One or more autoimmune and inflammatory complications were noted in 26.2% of patients, with a risk of onset throughout the patient's lifetime. The risk of autoimmune cytopenia was at least 120 times higher than in the general population, the risk of inflammatory bowel disease in children was 80 times higher, and the risk of other autoimmune manifestations was approximately 10 times higher. Remarkably, all types of PIDs were associated with a risk of autoimmune and inflammatory complications, although the greatest risk was associated with T-cell PIDs and common variable immunodeficiency. The occurrence of autoimmune disease is a negative prognostic factor for survival.

Conclusions

Our results provide the basis for a detailed prospective evaluation of autoimmunity and inflammation in the context of PIDs, with a view to accurately assessing these risks and describing the possible effect of medical intervention.

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