Several factors influencing the pharmacokinetics of infliximab (IFX) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been identified. We studied the impact of patient, disease, and treatment characteristics on clearance and immunogenicity of IFX in a real-world patient-with-IBD cohort.Methods:
Serum concentrations of IFX and antibodies to IFX (ATIs) were measured in patients with IBD at a single center using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay. Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics were retrospectively collected along with laboratory values. Pharmacokinetics and ATI titer were analyzed simultaneously by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling.Results:
Nine hundred ninety-seven IFX concentrations and 756 ATI measurements from 332 patients with IBD (253 Crohn's disease and 79 ulcerative colitis) were included. Mean (SD) IFX dose was 5.47 ± 1.33 mg/kg. ATIs were detected in 75/332 (23%) patients; insufficient exposure below an IFX trough level of 3 μg/mL was the most predictive factor of developing ATI and resulted in a 4-fold increased risk of ATI development. ATI titer was a better predictor of IFX clearance than ATI as a dichotomous parameter. ATI titers >30 AU/mL were consistently associated with undetectable IFX concentrations. IFX clearance was affected by body weight (40–149 kg) ranging from 0.27 to 0.53 L/d, serum albumin (2–5.4 g/dL) from 0.93 to 0.24 L/d, and titers of ATIs (0–53,000 AU/mL) from 0.36 L/d to 15.93 L/d (P < 0.001). Previously biologic-treated patients exhibited a higher clearance of IFX.Conclusions:
IFX exposure below 3 μg/mL increases risk of ATIs. Identification of influential pharmacokinetics and ATI factors improves prediction of IFX levels, potentially allowing individualized dosing and cost reduction.