Cross-Validation of a Classification System for Persons With Traumatic Brain Injury in the Posthospital Period

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To (1) identify groupings of persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the posthospital period in a cohort recruited in Australia; (2) compare groupings from the Australian cohort to groupings previously developed for a US cohort.


Rehabilitation centers in the US and Australia.


A total of 170 persons with TBI from Australia and 504 persons with TBI from the United States. Participants were aged 18 to 64 years, greater than 6 months postinjury, had capacity to give consent, and had definitive contemporaneous medical evidence of TBI.


Observational study.

Main Measures:

Cognitive tests—Wechsler Letter-Number Sequencing and Coding, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test, Verbal Fluency. Questionnaires—9 scales from the Traumatic Brain Injury Quality-of-Life system; Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory; Economic Quality of Life, Family Assessment Device—General Functioning. Performance validity—Word Memory Test.


Agreement in classification for the 2 samples was only moderate with 63.5% correctly classified and Cohen's κ = 0.53. A post hoc analysis placing all persons showing poor performance validity in the same group improved classification to 73% and Cohen's κ = 0.65 indicating substantial agreement.


Results provided support for the patient groups developed for the US sample and indicate that these groupings largely replicated in a new cohort.

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