Untimely expression of gametogenic genes in vegetative cells causes uniparental disomy

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Abstract

Uniparental disomy (UPD), in which an individual contains a pair of homologous chromosomes originating from only one parent, is a frequent phenomenon that is linked to congenital disorders and various cancers1,2. UPD is thought to result mostly from pre- or post-zygotic chromosome missegregation2. However, the factors that drive UPD remain unknown. Here we use the fission yeastSchizosaccharomyces pombeas a model to investigate UPD, and show that defects in the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery or in the YTH domain-containing RNA elimination factor Mmi1 cause high levels of UPD in vegetative diploid cells. This phenomenon is not due to defects in heterochromatin assembly at centromeres. Notably, in cells lacking RNAi components or Mmi1, UPD is associated with the untimely expression of gametogenic genes. Deletion of the upregulated gene encoding the meiotic cohesin Rec8 or the cyclin Crs1 suppresses UPD in both RNAi andmmi1mutants. Moreover, overexpression of Rec8 is sufficient to trigger UPD in wild-type cells. Rec8 expressed in vegetative cells localizes to chromosomal arms and to the centromere core, where it is required for localization of the cohesin subunit Psc3. The centromeric localization of Rec8 and Psc3 promotes UPD by uniquely affecting chromosome segregation, causing a reductional segregation of one homologue. Together, these findings establish the untimely vegetative expression of gametogenic genes as a causative factor of UPD, and provide a solid foundation for understanding this phenomenon, which is linked to diverse human diseases.

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