Applying recovery biomarkers to calibrate self-report measures of sodium and potassium in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos
Measurement error in assessment of sodium and potassium intake obscures associations with health outcomes. The level of this error in a diverse US Hispanic/Latino population is unknown. We investigated the measurement error in self-reported dietary intake of sodium and potassium and examined differences by background (Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican and South American). In 2010-2012, we studied 447 participants aged 18-74 years from four communities (Miami, Bronx, Chicago and San Diego), obtaining objective 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion measures. Self-report was captured from two interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recalls. Twenty percent of the sample repeated the study. We examined bias in self-reported sodium and potassium from diet and the association of mismeasurement with participant characteristics. Linear regression relating self-report with objective measures was used to develop calibration equations. Self-report underestimated sodium intake by 19.8% and 20.8% and potassium intake by 1.3% and 4.6% in men and women, respectively. Sodium intake underestimation varied by Hispanic/Latino background (P < 0.05) and was associated with higher body mass index (BMI). Potassium intake underestimation was associated with higher BMI, lower restaurant score (indicating lower consumption of foods prepared away from home and/or eaten outside the home) and supplement use. The R2 was 19.7% and 25.0% for the sodium and potassium calibration models, respectively, increasing to 59.5 and 61.7% after adjusting for within-person variability in each biomarker. These calibration equations, corrected for subject-specific reporting error, have the potential to reduce bias in diet-disease associations within this largest cohort of Hispanics in the United States.