Anthocyanin suppresses CoCrMo particle-induced osteolysis by inhibiting IKKα/β mediated NF-κB signaling in a mouse calvarial model☆
Wear particle-induced osteolysis and bone resorption have been identified as critical factors of implant failure and total joint revision, in which nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and chronic inflammation have been shown to play key roles. Although anthocyanin is known to have anti-inflammatory function via blocking NF-κB pathway, it is still unclear whether anthocyanin has a protective effect on particle-induced osteolysis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the detailed effects and the underlying mechanism of anthocyanin on CoCrMo particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse calvavial model. One hundred and twelve male BALB/c mice were divided randomly into four groups: sham group (sham operation and injection with PBS), vehicle group (CoCrMo particle treatment and injection with PBS), low-dose anthocyanin group (CoCrMo particle treatment and injecting anthocyanin with 0.1 mg/g/day), and high–dose anthocyanin group (CoCrMo particle treatment and injecting anthocyanin with 0.4 mg/g/day). Mice were sacrificed after two weeks, harvesting the calvariae tissue for in depth analysis by micro-CT, histomorphometry, immunohistochemical and molecular biology analysis. As expected, anthocyanin markedly inhibited CoCrMo particle–induced inflammatory infiltration and decreased bone loss in vivo. Anthocyanin also reversed the increase in the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoproteger (OPG) and suppressed osteoclast formation in CoCrMo particle–stimulated calvaria. Additionally, anthocyanin significantly reduced the expression and secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the calvaria of CoCrMo-stimulated mice. Furthermore, we confirmed that anthocyanin attenuated osteolysis by blocking NF-κB pathway via inhibiting inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase α/β (IKKα/β) phosphorylation. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that anthocyanin can protect against CoCrMo particle–induced inflammatory osteolysis via inhibiting the IKKα/β-NF-κB pathway, and have a potential therapeutic effect on the treatment of wear particle–induced osteolysis.