Intraosseous schwannomas of the mandible are rare tumors that usually arise from peripheral nerve sheaths of the main trunk or branches of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN).
A systematic review of the English literature through PubMed was conducted from 1945 to 2016. Forty-nine patients of mandibular intraosseous schwannomas were identified. The most common location of the tumor was the posterior mandible (61.2%). There were 28 patients in whom the tumor involved the IAN (57.1%). The most commonly performed procedures included enucleation through a mucoperiosteal flap and a bone window (73%), curettage (10%), segmental mandibulectomy (10%), and sagittal split ramus osteotomy (6%). The recurrence rate was 6%: all 3 recurrent patients occurred in the posterior area. The authors report a 72-year-old female with a schwannoma of the IAN which was removed through a sagittal split of the mandible, although there was a bony defect of the external cortex after biopsy of the lesion. The nerve was reconstructed with a sural nerve graft.
Due to the slow growing nature and encapsulation of schwannomas, surgical resection seems the best treatment with optimal functional outcomes and low recurrence rate even with a minimally invasive approach. Sagittal split ramus osteotomy and segmental mandibulectomy are reserved to large or posterior lesions to aid with radical resection or improve exposure and reconstruction.