1-(2,4-Dibromophenyl)-3,6,6-trimethyl-1,5,6,7-tetrahydro-4: A Novel Opioid Receptor Agonist with Less Accompanying Gastrointestinal Dysfunction than MorphineH: A Novel Opioid Receptor Agonist with Less Accompanying Gastrointestinal Dysfunction than Morphine-indazol-4-one: A Novel Opioid Receptor Agonist with Less Accompanying Gastrointestinal Dysfunction than Morphine

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Abstract

Background:

The authors investigated the pharmacology and signaling pathways of the opioid receptors modulated by compound 1, 1-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-3,6,6-trimethyl-1,5,6,7-tetrahydro-4H-indazol-4-one.

Methods:

In vitro studies of compound 1 were assessed by using a radioligand-binding assay (n = 3), a cyclic adenosine monophosphate assay (n = 3), a β-arrestin assay (n = 3), an internalization assay (n = 3), and an immunohistochemistry (n = 8). In vivo studies of compound 1 were characterized using a tail-flick test (n = 5 to 6), tail-clip test (n = 7), von Frey hair test (n = 5), and charcoal meal test (n = 5).

Results:

Compound 1 elicited robust effects in μ-opioid (mean ± SD; binding affinity: 15 ± 2 nM; cyclic adenosine monophosphate assay: 24 ± 6 nM), δ-opioid (82 ± 7 nM; 1.9 ± 0.1 μM), and κ-opioid (76 ± 9 nM; 1.4 ± 0.5 μM) receptor–expressing cells. Compound 1 acts as a full agonist of β-arrestin-2 recruitment in μ-opioid (1.1 ± 0.3 μM) and δ-opioid (9.7 ± 1.9 μM) receptor–expressing cells. Compound 1 caused less gastrointestinal dysfunction (charcoal meal test: morphine: 82 ± 5%; compound 1: 42 ± 5%) as well as better antinociception in mechanical pain hypersensitivity (tail-clip test: morphine: 10 ± 3 s; compound 1: 19 ± 1 s) and in cancer-induced pain (von Frey hair test: morphine: 0.1 ± 0.1 g; compound 1: 0.3 ± 0.1 g) than morphine at equi-antinociceptive doses.

Conclusions:

Compound 1 produced antinociception with less gastrointestinal dysfunction than morphine.

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