Preoperative hypoalbuminemia is associated with poor clinical outcomes after open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

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Abstract

Objective:

The effect of preoperative malnutrition on outcomes in patients undergoing major vascular surgery is unclear. We investigated the effects of preoperative hypoalbuminemia, a marker for malnutrition, on outcomes after open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OAR) and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR).

Methods:

Patients undergoing OAR or EVAR were identified in the 2005 to 2012 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database and stratified into three groups: normal albumin (serum albumin >3.5 g/dL), moderate hypoalbuminemia (2.8-3.5 g/dL), and severe hypoalbuminemia (<2.8 g/dL). Multivariable analyses were performed to assess the association of preoperative hypoalbuminemia with 30-day morbidity and mortality.

Results:

We identified 15,002 patients with a recorded preoperative serum albumin who underwent OAR (n = 4956) or EVAR (n = 10,046). Patients in both cohorts with hypoalbuminemia had a higher burden of comorbidity. In OAR patients, multivariable analyses demonstrated that moderate hypoalbuminemia was associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.70) and postoperative length of stay (LOS; means ratio [MR], 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.16), whereas severe hypoalbuminemia was associated with increased 30-day mortality (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.37-2.70), reoperation ≤30 days (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.32-2.48), pulmonary complications (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06-1.86), and postoperative LOS (MR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45). In EVAR patients, moderate hypoalbuminemia was associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.38-2.62), pulmonary complications (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.26-2.04), reoperation ≤30 days (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.12-1.74), and postoperative LOS (MR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.18-1.29), whereas severe hypoalbuminemia was associated with increased 30-day mortality (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.96-4.53), pulmonary complications (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.32-2.67), reoperation ≤30 days (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.08-2.19), and postoperative LOS (MR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.40-1.65).

Conclusions:

Preoperative hypoalbuminemia is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality in a severity-dependent manner among patients undergoing OAR or EVAR. Evaluation and optimization of nutritional status should be performed preoperatively in this high-risk population.

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