Implications of concomitant hypogastric artery embolization with endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms

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Abstract

Objective:

Hypogastric artery embolization (HAE) is associated with significant risk of ischemic complications. We assessed the impact of HAE on 30-day outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Methods:

We queried the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2011 to 2014 to identify and to compare clinical features, operative details, and 30-day outcomes of EVAR with those of concomitant HAE with EVAR (HAE + EVAR). Multivariate analysis was performed to determine preoperative and intraoperative factors associated with development of significant complications observed in patients with HAE + EVAR.

Results:

In a cohort of 5881 patients, 387 (6.6%) underwent HAE + EVAR. Compared with EVAR, a higher incidence of ischemic colitis (2.6% vs 0.9%; P = .002), renal failure requiring dialysis (2.8% vs 1%; P = .001), pneumonia (2.6% vs 1.3%; P = .039), and perioperative blood transfusion (17% vs 13%; P = .024) was noted after HAE + EVAR. Thirty-day thromboembolic events, strokes, myocardial infarction, lower extremity ischemia, reoperation, and readmission rates were not significantly different (P > .05). Mortality at 30 days in HAE + EVAR patients was 4.1% compared with 2.5% with EVAR (P = .044). HAE was independently associated with increased risk of colonic ischemia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-6.14; P = .003) and renal failure requiring dialysis (adjusted odds ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-4.53; P = .029). However, HAE was not an independent predictor of mortality. Average length of hospital stay was 4 ± 8.5 days after HAE + EVAR vs 3.3 ± 5.9 days after EVAR (P = .001).

Conclusions:

Concomitant HAE with EVAR is associated with longer and more complicated hospital stays. Ischemic colitis is a rare complication of EVAR. HAE increases the risk of ischemic colitis and renal failure requiring dialysis. This study highlights the importance of hypogastric artery preservation during EVAR.

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