Craniosynostosis, delayed closure of the fontanelle, anal, genitourinary, and skin abnormalities (CDAGS syndrome): first report in a Mexican patient and review of the literature.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Craniosynostosis and clavicular hypoplasia, delayed closure of the fontanelle, cranial defects, anal and genitourinary abnormalities, and skin (CDAGS), is an infrequent autosomal recessive entity with only 10 cases reported; no associated gene has been identified so far.

CASE REPORT

The proband is a 2-year-old Mexican female with brachycephaly, cleft palate, anal malformation with rectovestibular fistula, and clinodactyly of the third toe overlapping the second. At 4 months of age, she developed a disseminated dermatosis with erythematous scaly nummular plaques, elevated keratotic sharp borders with thin to broad flaking, hematic crusts, and keratotic surface in others. The lesions were slightly pruritic and began at the lower limbs with posterior dissemination to the upper limbs, head, and trunk; palms and soles were unaffected. A skin biopsy showed hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, and perivascular inflammatory infiltration in the upper reticular dermis among other alterations. She also presented mild bilateral neurosensory hypoacusia and enamel dysplasia. Her karyotype was normal. Treatment with topical hydrating creams partially improved the skin lesions at their center, while the sharply keratotic borders remained, giving a clinical resemblance to porokeratosis.

DISCUSSION

The patient suffers from CDAGS syndrome but has normal development, and feet abnormality was described in only one other patient. The treatment with topical hydrating creams improved the skin lesions at their center, while porokeratotic characteristics persisted. CDAGS remains a diagnostic challenge; a comparison with previously reported cases is discussed. The timely detection of the syndrome will allow early treatment that may improve the condition of the patients.

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