Sinigrin inhibits production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing NF-κB/MAPK pathways or NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages
Sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) is found mainly in broccoli, brussels sprouts, and black mustard seeds. Recently, sinigrin has received attention for its role in disease prevention and health. This study investigated the effect of sinigrin on macrophage function, including the activity of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In a concentration-dependent manner, sinigrin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, sinigrin significantly suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 via suppression of MAPK phosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. Treatment with sinigrin decreased IL-1β and IL-18 production and concurrently suppressed NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1 expression in LPS/ATP-stimulated cells, suggesting that the blocking of NLRP3 inflammasome activation prevented the production of both cytokines. Collectively, these results suggest that sinigrin has immunomodulatory effects by suppressing the production of inflammatory mediators, possibly by inhibiting the NF-κB/MAPK pathways or NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our findings also provide evidence that the pharmacological modulation of sinigrin could have an anti-inflammatory effect.