Impact of symptomatic skeletal events on health-care resource utilization and quality of life among patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Data regarding the impact of symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs) on health economics and patient-reported outcomes in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and bone metastases from a clinical setting are lacking. Hence, this study aimed to quantify the effects of SSEs on health-care resource utilization (HRU), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and pain in men with CRPC metastasized to bone.

METHODS:

This cohort study included men with CRPC and bone metastasis treated at a tertiary center during December 1996-July 2015. SSEs, including pathological fracture, radiation to bone, spinal cord compression and bone surgery, as well as HRU were identified retrospectively through medical records and clinical database. A subset of surviving patients completed Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) and Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) questionnaires. The incremental effect of SSEs on HRU was evaluated using multivariable generalized linear regression. Questionnaire scores were compared using effect sizes (ES); ES ≥ 0.33 indicated meaningful differences between SSE and non-SSE cohorts. Lower scores suggest lower HRQoL and pain.

RESULTS:

Of the 832 patients, 207 developed ≥ 1 SSE (mean 1.5 ± 0.8) during follow-up (median 2.1 years). Radiation to bone was the most common SSE (84.1%). SSE cohort had significantly higher emergency room (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.48; P = 0.006), outpatient (IRR = 1.17; P = 0.005) and inpatient (IRR = 1.74; P < 0.001) visits. Of the 107 eligible survey patients, 103 (96.3%) responded. SSE cohort had lower mean FACT-P functional well-being (17.5 vs 19.8; P = 0.158; ES = 0.36), higher mean pain severity (2.5 vs 1.6; P = 0.048; ES = 0.47) and worst pain scores (3.6 vs 2.3; P = 0.033; ES = 0.50) compared with the non-SSE cohort, indicating meaningful differences between cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study demonstrated high economic and HRQoL burden of SSEs. The findings underscore the need for better supportive and disease-modifying treatments for these patients.

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