Anticipation in Manual Tracking With Multiple Delays
Two experiments are reported showing that behavior exhibited in manual tracking is consistent with behavior predicted by a dynamical systems phenomenon known as anticipating synchronization (Voss, 2000). They extend a prior investigation of the effect of delay on anticipatory manual tracking (Stepp, 2009) by also manipulating coupling strength. The coupling scheme in Experiment 1 and that in Experiment 2 go beyond the single delayed feedback coupling used in previous research and articulations of anticipating synchronization. These advanced coupling arrangements are addressed using an extended formulation which allows for multiple feedback delays, a continuous range of delay, or even coupling to real future values. The latter case is specifically investigated in Experiment 2, which utilizes a navigation task that provides a natural way to speak about coupling to future values.