Regulation of STAT3 and NF-κB activations by S-nitrosylation in multiple myeloma
Numerous reports suggest that aberrant activations of STAT3 and NF-κB promote survival and proliferation of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. In the present report, we demonstrate that a synthetic S-nitrosothiol compound, S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC), inhibits proliferation and survival of multiple MM cells via S-nitrosylation-dependent inhibition of STAT3 and NF-κB. In human MM cells (e.g. U266, H929, and IM-9 cells), SNAC treatment increased S-nitrosylation of STAT3 and NF-κB and inhibited their activities. Consequently, SNAC treatment resulted in MM cell cycle arrest at G1/S check point and inhibited their proliferation. SNAC also decreased the expression of cell survival factors and increased the activities of caspases, thus increased sensitivity of MM cells to melphalan, a chemotherapeutic agent for MM. In U266 xenografted mice, SNAC treatment decreased the activity of STAT3 and reduced the growth of human CD138 positive cells (U266 cells) in the bone marrow and also reduced their production of human IgE into the serum. Taken together, these data document the S-nitrosylation mediated inhibition of MM cell proliferation and cell survival via inhibition of STAT3 and NF-κB pathways and its efficacy in animal model of MM.