The effect of oxidized phospholipids on phenotypic polarization and function of macrophages
Oxidized phospholipids are products of lipid oxidation that are found on oxidized low-density lipoproteins and apoptotic cell membranes. These biologically active lipids were shown to affect a variety of cell types and attributed pro-as well as anti-inflammatory effects. In particular, macrophages exposed to oxidized phospholipids drastically change their gene expression pattern and function. These ‘Mox,’macrophages were identified in atherosclerotic lesions, however, it remains unclear how lipid oxidation products are sensed by macrophages and how they influence their biological function. Here, we review recent developments in the field that provide insight into the structure, recognition, and downstream signaling of oxidized phospholipids in macrophages.