Over the last 3 decades, expansion in the scope and complexity of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery has resulted in significant improvements in postoperative outcomes. As a result, the importance of dedicated fellowship training for HPB surgery is now well established, and the definition of formal program requirements has been actively pursued by a collaboration of the 3 distinct accrediting bodies within North America. Although major advances have been made in defining minimum case volume requirements, qualitative assessment of the operative experience remains challenging. Our research collaborative (HPB Manpower and Education Study Group) has previously explored the perceived case volume adequacy of core HPB procedures within fellowship programs. We conducted a 1-year follow-up survey targeting the same cohort to investigate the association between operative case volumes and comfort performing HPB procedures within initial independent practice.