Neuropathic pain is a neurological disorder that strongly affects the quality of life of patients. The molecular and cellular mechanisms at the basis of the neuropathic pain establishment still need to be clarified. Among the neuromodulators that play a role in the pathological pain pathways, endocannabinoids could be deeply involved in both neuronal and non-neuronal mechanisms responsible for the appearance of tactile allodynia. Indeed, the function and dysfunction of this complex system in the molecular and cellular mechanisms of chronic pain induction and maintenance have been widely studied over the last two decades. In this review article, we highlighted the possible modulation of the endocannabinoid system in the neuronal, glial and microglial modulation in neuropathic pain treatment.