Solid state characterization of azelnidipine–oxalic acid co-crystal and co-amorphous complexes: The effect of different azelnidipine polymorphs
In present study, based on the two polymorphs (α and β form) of azelnidipine (AZE), 12 complexes of AZE and oxalic acid (OXA) were prepared by solvent-assisted grinding (SG) and neat powder grinding (NG) methods at the AZE/OXA molar ratios of 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2. The effect of the different polymorphs of AZE on the micro-structure of the complexes were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), tempreture modulated differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, cryo-field emission scanning electron microscope system, fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. β-AZE-OXA co-crystal was produced at β-AZE/OXA molar ratio of 2:1 when SG method was used; while α-AZE was used to produce α-AZE-OXA co-crystal at same condition. However, the other 10 combinations were in co-amorphous forms, including the NG samples with α (or β)-AZE/OXA molar ratios of 2:1, 1:1 (SG and NG), and 1:2 (SG and NG). Although the XRD pattern and IR spectra of the two co-crystals showed no difference, the melting enthalpy and specific heat cp of the β-AZE-OXA co-crystal was higher than that of the α-AZE-OXA co-crystal, indicating that the numbers of solvent molecules which entered the two co-crystal lattices were different. Interestingly, obvious difference occurred in the IR spectra between the α-AZE-OXA and β-AZE-OXA co-amorphous systems. 1745 cm−1 wave-numbers, which were assigned to the free C=O groups, appeared in the α-AZE-OXA co-amorphous systems even when just a small amount of OXA was introduced, thereby indicating the presence of different intermolecular forces in the two series of co-amorphous forms. The solubility in different media and the dissolution rate in 0.1 mol L−1 HCl of the 12 complexes were determined. The dramatically improved dissolution rates of the α- and β-AZE-OXA 1:2 (NG) combinations in vitro showed potential in improving the physicochemical properties of AZE by co-amorphous complex formation.