Visfatin levels are increased in patients with resistant hypertension and are correlated with left ventricular hypertrophy

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The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation of serum visfatin levels with resistant hypertension (RHT).

Patients and methods

Patients who had undergone ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) during the outpatient controls were prospectively recruited. Seventy-one patients with RHT and 94 patients with controlled hypertension (CHT) were included in the study. RHT was defined as ‘uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) despite using three antihypertensive agents including a diuretic or need of four or more drugs to control BP’. The demographic properties, medications used, and laboratory parameters including visfatin levels were recorded.


In the RHT group, left ventricular mass index was significantly higher compared with the CHT group (108.13±26.86 vs. 89.46±24.09 g/m2, P<0.01). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and visfatin levels were significantly higher in the RHT group [4.0 (5.2) vs. 2.3 (3.0) mg/l, P<0.01, and 12.87±4.98 vs. 9.46±4.69 ng/ml, P<0.01, respectively] compared with the CHT group. In the multivariate linear regression model, visfatin level remained as an independent predictor for office systolic BP [B: 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17–2.98, P<0.01]; office diastolic BP (B: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.27–1.16, P<0.01); mean 24-h systolic ABPM (B: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.79–2.13, P<0.01); and mean 24-h diastolic ABPM (B: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.42–1.34, P<0.01) and was also correlated independently with left ventricular mass index (B: 3.13, 95% CI: 2.58–3.99, P<0.01).


In this cohort of RHT patients diagnosed with ABPM, we have found an independent correlation between higher visfatin levels and the presence of RHT and left ventricular hypertrophy.

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