Exploring Selection Bias by Causal Frailty Models: The Magnitude Matters
Counter-intuitive associations appear frequently in epidemiology, and these results are often debated. In particular, several scenarios are characterized by a general risk factor that appears protective in particular subpopulations, for example, individuals suffering from a specific disease. However, the associations are not necessarily representing causal effects. Selection bias due to conditioning on a collider may often be involved, and causal graphs are widely used to highlight such biases. These graphs, however, are qualitative, and they do not provide information on the real life relevance of a spurious association. Quantitative estimates of such associations can be obtained from simple statistical models. In this study, we present several paradoxical associations that occur in epidemiology, and we explore these associations in a causal, frailty framework. By using frailty models, we are able to put numbers on spurious effects that often are neglected in epidemiology. We discuss several counter-intuitive findings that have been reported in real life analyses, and we present calculations that may expand the understanding of these associations. In particular, we derive novel expressions to explain the magnitude of bias in index-event studies.