The role of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) proteins in the modulation of NF-κB pathway during IHNV infection
Viral infections frequently lead to the activation of host innate immune signaling pathways involved in the defense against invading pathogens. To ensure their survival, viruses have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to overcome the host immune responses. The present study demonstrated for the first time that infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) activated NF-κB pathway in fish cells. We further identified that the IHNV L protein could activate the NF-κB signaling pathway and that IHNV NV functioned as an inhibitor of NF-κB activation. Further results demonstrated that the NV protein blocked the degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBα) and suppressed the SeV-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation. In conclusion, our study explored the functions of different IHNV proteins on NF-κB activation, and revealed a potential mechanism by which IHNV evades innate immune responses.