Protective effects of nebivolol from oxidative stress to prevent hypertension-related target organ damage
Hypertension is one of the leading risk factors for morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and renal impairment. It also leads to target organ damage (TOD), which worsens organ function and the patient's clinical status. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress may contribute significantly to TOD in patients with hypertension. NO (nitric oxide) is a paracrine factor derived from endothelial cells that has been shown to alleviate ROS-mediated oxidative damage. Nebivolol is a third-generation β-blocker with vasodilator activity, both actions contributing to decreased blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Its vasodilatory function is mediated by the endothelial L-arginine NO pathway. Nebivolol increases the bioavailability of NO in the vasculature. Its efficacy and safety profile is comparable to other commonly used antihypertensive agents. In this article, we review the current literature to understand TOD secondary to oxidative stress in patients with hypertension and the role of nebivolol in its prevention. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which nebivolol reduces ROS-mediated TOD will not only help in the development of targeted therapies but may also improve health outcomes in hypertensive patients.