Rumination is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring
Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error-related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ERNs). After controlling for anxiety, rumination—but not worry—predicted ERN attenuation. No significant relation between rumination and Pe emerged. Findings suggest that rumination may diminish resources early in the processes of performance monitoring and the recruitment of cognitive control.