Myeloid neoplasms with concurrentBCR-ABL1andCBFBrearrangements: A series of 10 cases of a clinically aggressive neoplasm
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is defined by the presence of t(9;22)(q34;q11.2)/BCR-ABL1. Additional chromosomal abnormalities confer an adverse prognosis and are particularly common in the blast phase of CML (CML-BP). CBFB rearrangement, particularly CBFB-MYH11 fusion resulting from inv(16)(p13.1q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22), is an acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-defining alteration that is associated with a favorable outcome. The co-occurrence of BCR-ABL1 and CBFB rearrangement is extremely rare, and the significance of this finding remains unclear. We identified 10 patients with myeloid neoplasms harboring BCR-ABL1 and CBFB rearrangement. The study group included six men and four women with a median age of 51 years (range, 20-71 years). The sequence of molecular alterations could be determined in nine cases: BCR-ABL1 preceded CBFB rearrangement in seven, CBFB rearrangement preceded BCR-ABL1 in one, and both alterations were discovered simultaneously in one patient. BCR-ABL1 encoded for p210 kD in all cases in which BCR-ABL1 preceded CBFB rearrangement; a p190 kD was identified in the other three cases. Two patients were treated with the FLAG-IDA regimen (fludarabine, cytarabine, idarubicin, and G-CSF) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI); seven with other cytarabine-based regimens and TKIs, and one with ponatinib alone. At last follow up (median, 16 months; range 2-85), 7 of 10 patients had died. The co-existence of BCR-ABL1 and CBFB rearrangement is associated with poor outcome and a clinical course similar to that of CML-BP, and unlike de novo AML with CBFB rearrangement, suggesting that high-intensity chemotherapy with TKI should be considered in these patients.