Early Infant Growth Velocity Patterns and Cardiovascular and Metabolic Outcomes in Childhood

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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the impact of infant growth on childhood health by examining the associations of detailed longitudinal infant weight velocity patterns with childhood cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes.

Study design

In a population-based prospective cohort study of 4649 children, we used repeated growth measurements at age 0-3 years to derive peak weight velocity (PWV), age at adiposity peak (AGEAP), and body mass index at adiposity peak (BMIAP). At age 6 years, we measured blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin concentrations and defined children with clusters of risk factors. We assessed associations using 2 multivariable linear regression models.

Results

A 1-SDS-higher infant PWV was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure (0.05 SDS; 95% CI, 0.02-0.09) and lower left ventricular mass (−0.05 SDS; 95% CI, −0.09 to −0.01), independent of body size. A 1-SDS-higher BMIAP was associated with higher systolic (0.12; 95% CI, 0.09-0.16) and diastolic (0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.08) blood pressure, but these associations were explained by childhood BMI. We did not observe any associations of PWV, BMIAP, and AGEAP with cholesterol and insulin concentrations. Higher PWV and AGEAP were associated with elevated risk of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in childhood (P < .05).

Conclusion

Infant weight velocity patterns are associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Further studies are needed to explore the associations with metabolic outcomes and long-term consequences.

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