The association between condylar bone changes revealed in cone beam computed tomography and clinical dysfunction index in patients with or without temporomandibular joint disorders

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The aim of the present study was to compare cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) findings pertinent to patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and patients without TMD (non-TMD), as well as to investigate the correlation between these findings and the clinical dysfunction index (Di).

Study Design.

In this cross-sectional study, CBCT images of temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were evaluated for condylar bone changes in 84 patients with TMD. The patients were assigned a score using Helkimo's clinical Di, ranging from 1 to 25, and were thereafter subdivided into 3 groups based on the degree of Helkimo's Di. CBCT and clinical records of sex- and age-matched non-TMD patients were used as the control group.


There was a significant difference in the prevalence of all types of bone changes between TMD and non-TMD groups (all P < .05), except for loose joint bodies. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the total amount of bone change and the Helkimo Di score (P < .001).


Evaluation of CBCT images in the present study revealed significant differences between TMD and non-TMD condyles. There was also a significant relationship between the Helkimo clinical Di and the total amount of condylar bone change in patients with TMD.

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