Maternal and infant genetic variants, maternal periconceptional use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and risk of congenital heart defects in offspring: population based study
To evaluate whether the association between maternal periconceptional use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and increased risk of congenital heart defects in offspring is modified by maternal or infant genetic variants in folate, homocysteine, or transsulfuration pathways.Design
Population based study. DNA from mothers, fathers, and infants was genotyped with an Illumina GoldenGate custom single nucleotide polymorphism panel. A hybrid design based on a log linear model was used to calculate relative risks and Bayesian false discovery probabilities (BFDP) to identify polymorphisms associated with congenital heart defects modified by SSRI use.Data sources
Data from the US National Birth Defects Prevention Study on 1180 liveborn infants with congenital heart defects and 1644 controls, born 1997-2008.Main outcome measures
Cases included infants with selected congenital heart defects and control infants had no major defects. SSRI use was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers.Results
For women who reported taking SSRIs periconceptionally, maternal SHMT1 (rs9909104) GG and AG genotypes were associated with a 5.9 and 2.4 increased risk of select congenital heart defects in offspring, respectively, versus the AA genotype (BFDP=0.69). Compared with the AA genotype, BHMT (rs492842 and rs542852) GG and AG genotypes were associated with twice the risk of congenital heart defects (BFDP=0.74 and 0.79, respectively). MGST1 (rs2075237) CC and AC genotypes were associated with an increased risk compared with the GG genotype (8.0 and 2.8, respectively; BFDP=0.79). Single nucleotide polymorphism in infant genes in the folate (MTHFS rs12438477), homocysteine (TRDMT1 rs6602178 and GNMT rs11752813) and transsulfuration (GSTP1 rs7941395 and MGST1 rs7294985) pathways were also associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects.Conclusions
Common maternal or infant genetic variants in folate, homocysteine, or transsulfuration pathways are associated with an increased risk of certain congenital heart defects among children of women taking SSRIs during cardiogenesis.