Reduced expression of selective immune-related genes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) monocytes exposed to atrazine
The effect of atrazine (ATZ) and its metabolites on aquatic vertebrate species has been a matter of concern to researchers and environmentalist. In this study we exposed head kidney monocytes to sublethal concentrations of atrazine (1 and 10 μg/ml−1), corresponding to 1% and 10% of the LC50–96h, to evaluate the expression of immune-related genes central to immune stimulation. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, Mieloperoxidase and Mx genes were significantly reduced following 24 h exposure to both concentrations of ATZ. The mRNA levels of iRAK4 were reduced only at the higher ATZ concentration and the mRNA levels of IL-1β were not affected. The results reported here support our previous findings on the immunosuppressive effect of ATZ indicating its potential to interfere with the expression of immune-related genes, and strengthen the need to regulate ATZ usage aiming to preserve animal and human health.