Class IIa HDAC inhibition reduces breast tumours and metastases through anti-tumour macrophages

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Abstract

Although the main focus of immuno-oncology has been manipulating the adaptive immune system, harnessing both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system might produce superior tumour reduction and elimination. Tumour-associated macrophages often have net pro-tumour effects1, but their embedded location and their untapped potential provide impetus to discover strategies to turn them against tumours. Strategies that deplete (anti-CSF-1 antibodies and CSF-1R inhibition)2,3or stimulate (agonistic anti-CD40 or inhibitory anti-CD47 antibodies)4,5tumour-associated macrophages have had some success. We hypothesized that pharmacologic modulation of macrophage phenotype could produce an anti-tumour effect. We previously reported that a first-in-class selective class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, TMP195, influenced human monocyte responses to the colony-stimulating factors CSF-1 and CSF-2in vitro6. Here, we utilize a macrophage-dependent autochthonous mouse model of breast cancer to demonstrate thatin vivoTMP195 treatment alters the tumour microenvironment and reduces tumour burden and pulmonary metastases by modulating macrophage phenotypes. TMP195 induces the recruitment and differentiation of highly phagocytic and stimulatory macrophages within tumours. Furthermore, combining TMP195 with chemotherapy regimens or T-cell checkpoint blockade in this model significantly enhances the durability of tumour reduction. These data introduce class IIa HDAC inhibition as a means to harness the anti-tumour potential of macrophages to enhance cancer therapy.

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