To determine the 1) incidence of subglottic stenosis in infants and children following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and 2) risk factors associated with its development.Design:
Retrospective cohort study.Setting:
Tertiary children’s hospital in California.Patients:
Infants and children who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Interventions:
Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis by tracheoscopy.Measurements and Main Results:
The incidence of subglottic stenosis at our institution during the study period was 0.7%. Young age (p = 0.014), prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (p = 0.03), and prolonged mechanical ventilation (p < 0.01) were associated with the development of subglottic stenosis. Gender, chromosomal anomaly, presence of a cuffed endotracheal tube, and lowest core temperature during cardiopulmonary bypass were not associated with the development of subglottic stenosis.Conclusions:
The incidence of subglottic stenosis was less than that previously reported in this population. Although the incidence is relatively low, subglottic stenosis is a serious complication of tracheal intubation and all measures to prevent subglottic stenosis should be undertaken.