Physical Functioning, Physical Activity, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Quality of Life Among Individuals With Chronic Heart Failure in Korea: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study

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Abstract

Background:

Both the beneficial relationship between exercise and quality of life and the important role played by exercise self-efficacy in maintaining an exercise regimen among individuals with chronic heart failure are well known. However, most nursing interventions for Korean patients with chronic heart failure focus only on providing education related to risk factors and symptoms. Little information is available regarding the influence of physical functions, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy on quality of life.

Purpose:

This study was conducted to examine the impact of physical functioning, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy on quality of life among individuals with chronic heart failure.

Methods:

This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Data were collected from 116 outpatients with chronic heart failure in Korea. Left ventricular ejection fraction and New York Heart Association classifications were chart reviewed. Information pertaining to levels of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and quality of life were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t tests, analyses of variance, correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions.

Results:

About 60% of participants were physically inactive, and most showed relatively low exercise self-efficacy. The mean quality-of-life score was 80.09. The significant correlates for quality of life were poverty, functional status, physical inactivity, and exercise self-efficacy. Collectively, these four variables accounted for 50% of the observed total variance in quality of life.

Conclusions/Implications for Practice:

Approaches that focus on enhancing exercise self-efficacy may improve patient-centered outcomes in those with chronic heart failure. In light of the low level of exercise self-efficacy reported and the demonstrated ability of this factor to predict quality of life, the development of effective strategies to enhance exercise self-efficacy offers a novel and effective approach to improving the quality of life of patients with chronic heart failure. Nurses should be proactive in advising patients with chronic heart failure to be more physically active and to enhance their self-confidence in diverse ways.

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