Higher serum caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 levels during the first week of sepsis diagnosis in non-survivor patients

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Abstract

Background:

Caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK)-18 is a protein released into the blood during apoptosis. Higher circulating CCCK-18 concentrations have been found in non-survivor than in survivor septic patients at moment of sepsis diagnosis. The following questions arise now: (1) How are serum CCCK-18 levels during the first week of sepsis? (2) Is there an association between sepsis severity and mortality and serum CCCK-18 levels during the first week? The aims of this study were to answer these questions.

Methods:

Multicenter study with 321 severe septic patients from eight Spanish intensive care units. We determined serum concentration of CCCK-18, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-10 during the first week. Our end-point study was 30-day mortality.

Results:

Non-survivor (n=108) compared to survivor patients (n=213) showed higher serum CCCK-18 levels at days 1, 4 and 8 (p<0.001). ROC curve analyses showed that serum CCCK-18 levels at days 1 (AUC=0.77; 95% CI=0.72-0.82), 4 (AUC=0.81; 95% CI=0.76-0.85) and 8 (AUC=0.83; 95% CI=0.78-0.88) could predict mortality at 30 days (p<0.001). Logistic regression analyses showed that serum CCCK-18 levels at days 1 (OR=4.367; 95% CI=2.491-7.659), 4 (OR=10.137; 95% CI=4.741-21.678) and 8 (OR=8.781; 95% CI=3.626-21.268) were associated with 30-day mortality (p<0.001). We found a positive correlation between CCCK-18, SOFA, and lactic acid at days 1, 4 and 8.

Conclusions:

Non-survivor septic patients showed persistently during the first week higher serum CCCK-18 levels than survivor patients, and there is an association between sepsis severity and mortality and serum CCCK-18 levels during the first week.

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