Whole Body MR Imaging: A Useful Imaging Modality in the Management of Children With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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Children with acute myeloid leukemia suffer from various complications such as chloromas and disseminated infection or inflammation during their illness. As these complications tend to involve locations everywhere in the body, whole body magnetic resonance imaging may be a useful tool in children with acute myeloid leukemia.


To evaluate the distribution of chloromas using whole body magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to assess the clinical role of whole body MR imaging in management of pediatric patients with AML.

Materials and Methods:

We retrospectively searched pediatric patients (< 18 years old) who were diagnosed with AML and underwent whole body MR imaging during their illness between January 2006 and December 2014. The presence of chloromas was defined as when it was proven pathologically or showed typical imaging features. Nonchloroma lesions that were incidentally detected and were not previously seen on other imaging studies were defined as clinically occult nonchloroma lesions.


Sixty-nine whole body MR scans of 40 patients with AML were included. The musculoskeletal system (42.9%) was the most commonly affected by chloromas. A total of 77 chloromas were identified in 11 (27.5%) of 40 patients. Nine (81.8%) of these 11 patients had 2 or more chloromas. There were 39 (50.6%) unexpected chloromas, which were incidentally detected, in 7 patients. Whole body MR scanning provided additional information regarding 21 clinically occult nonchloroma lesions in this patient population.


Chloromas tended to show multiplicity and be present without symptoms. The most common site of involvement was the musculoskeletal system. Whole body MR imaging provided additional information that affected the clinical management of children with AML.

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