Viral infection induces translocation of the nucleolar protein GLTSCR2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, resulting in attenuation of the type I interferon IFN-β. Addressing the role of GLTSCR2 in viral replication, we detect that knocking down GLTSCR2 by shRNAs results in significant suppression of viral replication in mammalian and chicken cells. Injection of chicken embryo with the GLTSCR2-specific shRNA-1370 simultaneously or 24 h prior to infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) substantially reduces viral replication in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Injection of shRNA-1370 into chicken embryo also reduces the replication of avian influenza virus (AIV). In contrast, GLTSCR2-derived protein G4-T, forming α-helical dimers, increases replication of seven various DNA and RNA viruses in cells. Our studies reveal that alteration of the function of cellular GLTSCR2 plays a role in supporting viral replication. GLTSCR2 should be seriously considered as a therapeutic target for developing broad spectrum antiviral agents to effectively control viral infection.