HIV status and type of coronary stent placed in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

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Abstract

Background

Drug-eluting stents (DES) outperform bare-metal stents (BMS) in reducing target vessel revascularization following a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Little is known about the types of stents placed in HIV-positive patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs).

Methods

We used the 2003–2013 National Inpatient Sample to identify adults of 18 years or older presenting with STEMI. We evaluated differences in stent type placed following STEMIs on the basis of HIV status. Temporal trends in the use of PCI, DES, and BMS were studied on the basis of HIV status.

Results

Of 1 695 947 patients with STEMI, 5887 (0.3%) were HIV-positive patients. Following STEMIs, HIV-positive patients were equally likely to have PCI compared with HIV-negative patients [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89–1.21, P=0.63]. However, HIV-positive patients were less likely to have DES (AOR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73–0.94, P=0.003) and more likely to have BMS (AOR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11–1.45, P=0.001). Over the 11-year period observed, there were increases in PCI following STEMIs in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients (all Ptrend<0.001). There were significant increases in the use of DES in HIV-negative patients [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) per year: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.09, Ptrend<0.001] and significant decreases in the use of BMS (AOR per year: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.92–0.94, Ptrend<0.001). Significant trends showing changed practice patterns in the use of DES and BMS among HIV-positive patients were not observed.

Conclusion

Over a decade, there were significant increases in the use of PCI following STEMIs in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients. Although HIV-positive patients presenting with STEMIs were as likely as HIV-negative patients to undergo PCI, they were less likely to be treated with DES and more likely to receive BMS. Highlighting these observations will hopefully bring renewed attention to best practices for all STEMI patients.

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