Evaluation of abrin induced nephrotoxicity by using novel renal injury markers
Abrin is a potent plant toxin analogous to ricin that is derived from the seeds of Abrus precatorius plant. It belongs to the family of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins and causes cell death by irreversibly inactivating ribosomes through site-specific depurination. In this study we examined the in vivo nephrotoxicity potential of abrin toxin in terms of oxidative stress, inflammation, histopathological changes and biomarkers of kidney injury. Animals were exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 LD50 dose of abrin by intraperitoneal route and observed for 1, 3, and 7 day post-toxin exposure. Depletion of reduced glutathione and increased lipid peroxidation levels were observed in abrin treated mice. In addition, abrin also induced inflammation in the kidneys as observed through expression of MMP-9 and MMP-9/NGAL complex in abrin treated groups by using zymography method. Nephrotoxicity was also evaluated by western blot analysis of kidney injury biomarkers including Clusterin, Cystatin C and NGAL, and their results indicate severity of kidney injury in abrin treated groups. Kidney histology confirmed inflammatory changes due to abrin. The data generated in the present study clearly prove the nephrotoxicity potential of abrin.