On Allusive Names for the Syphilitic Patient From the 16th to the 19th Century: The Role of Dermatopathology
The disease named “syphilis” by Girolamo Fracastoro in 1530 was characterized by more than 400 allusive names from its beginnings (1494) until the 19th century, and more than 30 allusive names were also given to those suffering from it. In both cases, the various allusive names are reminiscent of the discipline of dermatopathology (Fig. 1).1
It is likely that the clinical symptoms of syphilis were first recorded in the history of dermatopathology and venereology in the form of the woodcut “The Syphilitic” by Albrecht Dürer, published by Theodoricus Ulsenius in his Flugblatt (pamphlet) entitled Vaticinium in epidemicam scabies (Prediction on the pestilence) (1496) emphasizing the disease's severity.
Syphilitic patients were a major cause for mockery within 16th-century burlesque literature. In fact, the poet Giovanni Battista Lalli called them affranciosati (those suffering from the “French disease”: the most widely used allusive name for syphilis) in his poem La Franceide (1629). This includes the lines: “Look at them, Aesculapius, united with the Goddess' love,/All the inspected affranciosati./French people lose the war, and its name have transmitted/To that dangerous disease, which consumes any hearth […].” From this synonym are derived the allusive names describing subjects affected by the dermatological symptoms caused by both primary and secondary syphilis: infranciosato, malfrancesato, sfrancesato and which all relate to France and to French people. In the same way, the burlesque poet Antonio Cammelli writes of the poxes that cover his body like a dress in his 2 sonnets, saying to a gentlewoman: “Lady, I am dressed as a French man, […] seriously wounded over and under and front and aside/Within the whole flesh of my body/[…].”2 He considers that being affected by such a serious disease indicates that he is a genuine member of the nobility: Lady, I am elected among Francia Barons.2 Still referring to France, Niccolò Campana, affected by syphilis, identifies himself in a sonnet as Paladin or Count of France.3 His peer Giovanni Francesco Bini also uses the allusive name Paladin of France4 that Pietro Aretino changes to amorous disease knight,5 which strikingly indicates the sexually contagious nature of the disease, as a result of syphilitic primitive follicular ulceration on the gland. Moreover, and in a sarcastic example of burlesque literature, Anton Francesco Doni, in his Foglie della zucca del Doni (1552), and more specifically in the chapter Il pelatoio (the bald man), the author refers to a syphilitic patient as bald: a reference to the hair loss that represents an early symptom of the disease. The clinical and dermatopathological symptoms of syphilis also became allusive names for syphilitic patients. For example, Bernardino Zambotti, a chronicler, referred to Duke Alfonso Este as follows in his history of the city of Ferrara: “On 3 [December 1497], […] Lady Anna [Anna Maria Sforza] was buried […] and Sir Alphonse […] was not present to be […] because I am impiagato de brozole (ulcerated by the venereal poxes) […].6
Generally, while noble syphilitic patients were treated in their own homes, most poorer patients affected by poxes or plagues (piagosi or impestati, respectively) and unable to walk were transported by wheelbarrow to the “hospital for incurables,” and syphilitic patients were also incurable.
Moreover, some allusive names used by Spanish authors are also highly evocative: Francisco Lopez de Gomara, writing on the symptoms of syphilis, calls a syphilitic patient a buboso7: one affected by bubas (poxes). Al fino buboso is the name given by Francisco Lopez de Villalobos to Spanish aristocrats affected by the fine bubas (fine poxes).