Biomedical imaging in recent decades has clarified our understanding of normal and pathological cellular processesin vivo, In particular, this approach recently provided insights into processes occurring at a molecular or genetic level rather than at the anatomical level. The evolution of this discipline by engineering have led to its integration into biomedical research to (1) increase sensitivity and resolution imaging and to (2) improve tissue and cell specificity. Currently, imaging approaches are used in three different biomedical areas: (a) identification of cellular processes in physiological and disease state; (b)in vivosingle-cell imaging; and (c) identification of new prognostic and therapeutical strategies. In this review, we will focus on the state of art of biomedical imaging in cancer. Specifically, we will highlight the most important advances in imaging tools available for basic and translational cancer research, with a particular emphasis on solid tissue malignancies.