Plant signalling in symbiosis and immunity
Plants encounter a myriad of microorganisms, particularly at the root–soil interface, that can invade with detrimental or beneficial outcomes. Prevalent beneficial associations between plants and microorganisms include those that promote plant growth by facilitating the acquisition of limiting nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. But while promoting such symbiotic relationships, plants must restrict the formation of pathogenic associations. Achieving this balance requires the perception of potential invading microorganisms through the signals that they produce, followed by the activation of either symbiotic responses that promote microbial colonization or immune responses that limit it.