Nitroxoline shows antimyeloma activity by targeting the TRIM25/p53 axle
The aim of this study was to identify the most potent quinoline-based anti-infectives for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and to understand the molecular mechanisms. A small-scale screen against a panel of marketed quinoline-based drugs was performed in MM cell lines. Cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. Anti-MM activity was also evaluated in nude mice. Western blotting was performed to investigate mechanisms. Nitroxoline (NXQ) was the most effective in suppressing MM cell proliferation. NXQ induced more than 40% MM cell apoptosis within 24 h and potentiated anti-MM activities of current major drugs including doxorubicin and lenalidomide. This finding was shown by activation of caspase-3, a major executive apoptotic enzyme, and by inactivation of PARP, a major enzyme in DNA damage repair. NXQ also suppressed prosurvival proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Moreover, NXQ suppressed the growth of myeloma xenografts in nude mice models. In the mechanistic study, NXQ was found to downregulate TRIM25, a highly expressed ubiquitin ligase in MM. Notably, NXQ upregulated tumor suppressor p53, but not PTEN. Furthermore, overexpression of TRIM25 decreased p53 protein. This study indicated that the long-term use of anti-infective NXQ has potential for MM treatment by targeting the TRIM25/p53 axle.