The Effects of Hierarchical Micro/Nano-Structured Titanium Surface on Osteoblast Proliferation and Differentiation Under Diabetic Conditions

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Abstract

Purpose:

The aim of the present study was to mimic the hierarchical structure of bone tissues by simple sandblasting/acid-etching and anodization to investigate the effects of such surface characteristics on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in high glucose concentrations. By the way, the effects of high glucose levels on osteoblast functions were tested.

Methods:

MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA) surface and nano-modified SLA (NMSLA) surface were subjected to normal serum (NS) and diabetic serum (DS), respectively. The surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT assay. The levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization were measured and compared. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect the expression levels of osteogenic genes.

Results:

NMSLA significantly increased cell proliferation at time points ranging from 3 to 7 days under both serums. Cells cultured on NMSLA surfaces displayed significantly higher ALP activities and mineralization. The expression levels of Runx2 (indicates runt-related protein 2), collagen I (COL1), and osteocalcin (OCN) were notably increased on NMSLA surface compared with SLA surface. Moreover, we found that high glucose increased osteoblast proliferation but decreased differentiation of osteoblast slightly.

Conclusion:

The hierarchical micro/nano-structured titanium surface has a favorable biocompatibility on simultaneously improving osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in diabetic serum.

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