Histological and Histomorphometrical Determination of the Biogradation of β-Tricalcium Phosphate Granules in Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation: A Prospective Observational Study

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Abstract

Introduction:

We have recently used highly pure β-TCP (beta-tricalcium phosphate) as the bone grafting material to avoid highly invasive autogenous bone grafting. We evaluated the osseoconduction potential of highly pure β-TCP in sinus augmentation surgery treatment.

Materials and Methods:

The study group comprised 13 patients who underwent maxillary sinus floor augmentation with β-TCP alone. Seven patients underwent sinus augmentation and implant placement simultaneously. Six patients were treated with a staged approach. Six months after surgery, specimens were obtained from 7 patients (for lateral biopsy) and 6 patients (for vertical biopsy).

Results:

Histological and histomorphometrical analysis showed a mean bone proportion of 30.8% (vertical) and 12.0% (lateral) for new bone formation and good integration of the β-TCP. New bone formation was lower in the lateral biopsy specimens than in the vertical.

Conclusion:

Highly pure β-TCP is a safe bone-grafting material with superior osteoconductive properties. Histologic and radiographic examinations indicate that β-TCP is slowly resorbed, which results in unresorbed graft material remaining even 6 months after the procedure, and that new bone replacement occurs slowly for approximately 1 year.

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