Blood pressure-lowering efficacy and safety of perindopril/indapamide/amlodipine single-pill combination in patients with uncontrolled essential hypertension: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial

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This 4-month, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was designed to demonstrate the superiority of perindopril/indapamide/amlodipine single pill over perindopril/indapamide after 1 month and to determine further up-titration efficacy and safety in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension.


After a 1-month run-in period on perindopril/indapamide 5/1.25 mg, patients with SBP/DBP at least 150/95 mmHg and no diabetes or renal insufficiency received perindopril/indapamide/amlodipine 5/1.25/5 mg single pill or continued on the same treatment. At 1, 2, and 3 months, patients with uncontrolled blood pressure (SBP/DBP ≥ 140/90 mmHg) were gradually up-titrated with a higher dose of the triple therapy up to perindopril/indapamide/amlodipine 10/2.5/10 mg in both groups. Efficacy was assessed on office supine SBP (main criterion) and DBP, blood pressure control, and response rates. Treatment effect on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) parameters was also assessed in two subpopulations of 276 and 263 patients, respectively.


A total of 454 hypertensive patients (diabetes and renal insufficiency excluded) were randomized, 227 to each group (56% were men, mean age was 55 years, blood pressure 162.3/101.1 mmHg). After 1 month, superior SBP (−3.1 mmHg, P = 0.02) and DBP (−2.8 mmHg, P < 0.001) reductions were observed with perindopril/indapamide/amlodipine, which were even more pronounced after excluding white-coat effect in the sustained hypertension population (−5.3/−3.7 mmHg). Similar results were observed in terms of blood pressure response (72 vs. 53%, P < 0.0001) and control rates (32 vs. 25%, P = 0.005). Up-titration was effective at each visit in both treatment arms (P < 0.001). Both ABPM and HBPM results confirmed the superiority of the triple therapy at 1 month on ASBP/ADBP and HSBP/HDBP: −4.5/−2.0 mmHg for ABPM (P < 0.001/P = 0.04), and −4.9/−3.1 mmHg for HBPM (both, P < 0.001). Up-titration steps resulted in further significant decreases in both ABPM and HBPM. Both treatment regimens were well tolerated regarding adverse events or laboratory testing. In particular, peripheral edema known to be amlodipine dose dependent, appeared in only a few cases, none with the highest dose. Hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, and cough whatever the dose were infrequent. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events.


Perindopril/indapamide/amlodipine in a single pill produces superior reductions in blood pressure compared with dual therapy. Triple therapy up-titration was well tolerated and effective leading to BP control rates of over 80%. Analysis of 24-h ABPM and HBPM results corroborated these findings.

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