Risk of Subsequent Primary Kidney Cancer After Another Malignancy: A Population-based Study
The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-9 database (1973-2013) was queried using the SEER*Stat program. A total of 10,145 kidney cancers were observed. Many common cancers are associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer development.Background:
Population-based data on the development of kidney cancer as a second malignant neoplasm following the diagnosis of other common malignancies are rare. This clinical scenario has been evaluated within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.Materials and Methods:
The SEER-9 database (1973-2013) was queried using the SEER*Stat program to determine the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of kidney cancer development following each one of 10 common invasive malignancies (colorectal, breast, prostate, lung, thyroid, corpus uteri, urinary bladder, kidney/renal pelvis, cutaneous melanoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). The following data were collected for patients with a second renal cancer: age at diagnosis of the second renal cancer; gender, race, and histology of the second primary renal cancer; SEER historic stage of the second primary renal cancer; and method of diagnostic confirmation of the second primary cancer.Results:
A total of 10,145 kidney cancers were observed. Elevated SIRs for kidney cancer were noted for all 10 evaluated malignancies in the initial 12 months after diagnosis. The SIRs remained elevated 12 to 59 months after diagnosis for all cancers except breast and prostate cancers. Increased risks persisted 60 to 119 months beyond diagnosis for renal cancer (SIR, 4.13), thyroid cancer (SIR, 2.30), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR, 1.40); and 120+ months for renal cancer (SIR, 3.60), thyroid cancer (SIR, 1.90), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR, 1.27). Increased kidney cancer risk after non-Hodgkin lymphoma was not related to radiation therapy. Papillary renal cell carcinoma has the highest SIRs for subsequent kidney cancers.Conclusion:
Many common cancers are associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer development within the first 5 years after their diagnosis. Although this can be partly interpreted by increased rates of surveillance tests, radiotherapy effects, or genetic associations for some cancers, additional research is required to explain the persistently increased risk beyond 5 years associated with some cancers.