Perforating and deep lymphatic vessels in the knee region: an anatomical study and clinical implications

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Lymphatics of the lower limb are involved in a variety of disorders, ranging from congenital dysplasia to dynamic processes of secondary lymphoedema, cancer metastasis and inflammation.1 Clinical management requires accurate and detailed anatomical understanding of the lymphatic pathways in the lower limb. Although, the knowledge of the superficial lymphatic anatomy in the lower limb has been renewed during the last decade,3 further study should be carried on especially regarding the deep lymphatic pathways and the perforating lymph vessel to renew our knowledge of the human lymphatic system.
In this study, details of the perforating lymph vessel, a set of popliteal lymph nodes and the deep lymphatic vessels in the knee region are described and demonstrated by radiographs and photographs.
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