Evaluation of the Risk Factors for a Rotator Cuff Retear After Repair Surgery

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Abstract

Background:

A retear is a significant clinical problem after rotator cuff repair. However, no study has evaluated the retear rate with regard to the extent of footprint coverage.

Purpose:

To evaluate the preoperative and intraoperative factors for a retear after rotator cuff repair, and to confirm the relationship with the extent of footprint coverage.

Study Design:

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods:

Data were retrospectively collected from 693 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair between January 2006 and December 2014. All repairs were classified into 4 types of completeness of repair according to the amount of footprint coverage at the end of surgery. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after a mean postoperative duration of 5.4 months. Preoperative demographic data, functional scores, range of motion, and global fatty degeneration on preoperative MRI and intraoperative variables including the tear size, completeness of rotator cuff repair, concomitant subscapularis repair, number of suture anchors used, repair technique (single-row or transosseous-equivalent double-row repair), and surgical duration were evaluated. Furthermore, the factors associated with failure using the single-row technique and transosseous-equivalent double-row technique were analyzed separately.

Results:

The retear rate was 7.22%. Univariate analysis revealed that rotator cuff retears were affected by age; the presence of inflammatory arthritis; the completeness of rotator cuff repair; the initial tear size; the number of suture anchors; mean operative time; functional visual analog scale scores; Simple Shoulder Test findings; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores; and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed patient age, initial tear size, and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus as independent risk factors for a rotator cuff retear. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the single-row group revealed patient age and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus as independent risk factors for a rotator cuff retear. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the transosseous-equivalent double-row group revealed a frozen shoulder as an independent risk factor for a rotator cuff retear.

Conclusion:

Our results suggest that patient age, initial tear size, and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus are independent risk factors for a rotator cuff retear, whereas the completeness of rotator cuff repair based on the extent of footprint coverage and repair technique are not.

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