Effect of congenital heart disease on 4-year neurodevelopment within multiple-gestation births
We sought to assess the effect of congenital heart disease requiring infant surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass on neurodevelopmental outcomes and growth at 4 years of age, while matching for gestational age, socioeconomic status, maternal gestational conditions, home environment, and parental intelligence by studying multiple-gestation births.Methods:
We performed within-family comparison of 14 multiple-gestation births in which 1 child had congenital heart disease requiring surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at ≤6 months of age. Between 4 and 5 years of age, a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment was performed. Paired comparisons were conducted between siblings with and without heart defects using a series of nonparametric tests.Results:
On average, the children qualified as late preterm (mean gestational age 35.4 ± 2.6 weeks). At an average age of 4.8 ± 0.1 years, children with congenital heart disease weighed less than their siblings (median weight for age z score −0.4 vs 0.1, P = .02) and had worse performance for cognition (median full-scale IQ 99 vs 109, P = .02) and fine motor skills (median Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Ability, Fine Motor score 94.5 vs 107.5, P < .01).Conclusions:
After controlling for socioeconomic status, home environment, parental intelligence, and gestational factors by using multiple-gestation births, congenital heart disease requiring surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at ≤6 months of age is associated with lower weight, cognitive abilities and fine motor skills at 4 years of age.